Forensic Science

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Detective Labs[edit]

Murder Meal[edit]

To solve the mystery of this murder, we first must look over this explanation of Macromolecules! (This lab may be also used by people who want to test out food and whether they have certain macromolecules. Just be sure not to eat the same food you tested! Just look at the instructions and follow the instructions for stomach contents- but just use whatever you're testing.)

What are Macromolecules?[edit]

Macromolecules are very large molecules, formed of smaller subunits. In this lab, we will focus on the three macromolecules that are important energy sources for biological organisms: Carbohydrates, Proteins and Lipids.

Carbohydrates[edit]

A carbohydrate is an organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Your body uses carbohydrates (carbs) to give you energy and help keep everything going. Your body can use carbohydrates immediately or store it in your liver and muscles for when it is needed. In general, the smaller carbohydrate compounds are commonly referred to as simple sugars, which are found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, milk, and milk products. These simple sugars are broken down quickly and give you short term energy. Starch is a complex carbohydrate. Starch must be broken down through digestion before your body can use it as an energy source. Quite a few foods contain starch and dietary fiber such as breads, cereals, pastas, and vegetables.

Proteins[edit]

Proteins are part of every cell, tissue, and organ in our bodies. These body proteins are constantly being broken down and replaced. The protein in the foods we eat is digested into amino acids that are later used to replace these proteins in our bodies. Protein is mainly found in the following foods: meats, poultry, and fish, legumes (dry beans and peas), tofu, eggs, nuts and seeds, milk and milk products, and grains. Most adults in the United States get more than enough protein to meet their needs. It is rare for someone who is healthy and eating a varied diet to not get enough protein. There are 20 different amino acids that join together to make all types of protein. Our bodies cannot make some of these amino acids so these are known as essential amino acids – it is essential that our diet provide these. A complete protein source is one that provides all of the essential amino acids, for example, meat, poultry, fish, milk, eggs, and cheese are considered complete protein sources. An incomplete protein source is one that is low in one or more of the essential amino acids.

Lipids[edit]

The term lipid is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, but this is technically incorrect. True fats are composed of triglycerides. Moreover, triglycerides that are solid at room temperature are called “fats” while those that remain liquid at room temperature are called “oils.” Triglycerides are also composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but in different ratios than in carbohydrates. Triglycerides have long chains of carbon and hydrogen bonds, which creates the hydrophobic (“water fearing”) tail. This property prevents triglycerides from mixing readily with water and causes them to separate relatively easily in solution. Unsaturated Fats, Saturated Fats and Trans Fats: Most of the fat that you eat should come from unsaturated sources: polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats. A fat is unsaturated if it contains at least one double bond. In general, nuts, vegetable oils, and fish are sources of unsaturated fats. Saturated fats are oftentimes the "solid" fats, but other saturated fats can be more difficult to see in the foods we consume. A fat is saturated if it consists of only single bonds. In general, saturated fat can be found in the following foods: high-fat cheeses, high-fat cuts of meat, whole-fat milk and cream, butter, ice cream and palm and coconut oils.

The File[edit]

Central to identifying the individual who committed this crime is establishing where the victim was the day of the crime so that detectives can question the individuals with whom the victim came into contact. An autopsy was performed on the victim has revealed that the victim ate just prior to the time of death. Upon questioning the victim’s friends and family, detectives working the case have learned that the victim enjoyed eating at the following places:
Panzotti’s Pizza[edit]
The victim would never eat pizza from anywhere else! The victim would typically order a pizza with sausage, pepperoni, and bacon.
China Chef[edit]
The victim would hang out here to enjoy Veggie Lo Mein and egg rolls from the buffet.  
Don Valerio’s[edit]
The victim loved to go here for a night of chips, salsa, cheese dip and chicken fajitas. 

The forensic pathologist has removed the contents of the victim’s stomach for you to analyze in order to determine where the victim had his last meal.

Item list[edit]

  • Protective Equipment (Gloves, Goggles)
  • Testing material (In this case, stomach contents)
  • Biuret Reagent (A chemical that reacts to presences of protein)
  • Benedict's Solution (A chemical that reacts to presences of sugars)
  • Iodine (A chemical we are going to use to detect complex carbs)
  • Square of a brown paper bag
  • 6 small plastic cups and 6 lids
  • 4 disposable pipettes (eyedroppers)
  • a bowl of hot water
  • a bottle of water

Let's get started[edit]

  • Goggles should be worn during all lab tests!!
  • Be sure to wear gloves!
  • Before you begin, pour some distilled water (bottled water works too) into a clean cup so that you can easily access it with a pipette. Also heat up some water in a pan or bowl to use in the Simple Sugar test below.
Lipid Test[edit]
  1. Put a drop of the stomach contents on the piece of a brown bag and let it dry completely.
  2. Put a drop of distilled water on another area of the brown bag.
  • If the spot dries and leaves no "grease spot" it is negative for lipid, but if a spot remains, then it is positive.
Protein Test[edit]
  1. Use a pipette to place 10ml of water into one of the small plastic cups.
  2. Use the plastic spoon to put one spoonful of the stomach contents into another small plastic cup.
  3. Use a new pipette to add 10 drops of Biuret Reagent to each plastic cup. Put a lid on each cup.
  4. Gently shake the contents of each test cup. CAUTION: Biuret Reagent contains a strong base. If you splash any on yourself wash it off immediately with water.
  • Biuret Reagent changes color from blue to violet in the presence of protein.
Simple Sugar Test[edit]
  1. Use a pipette to place 10ml of water into a clean small plastic cup.
  2. Use the plastic spoon to put one spoonful of the stomach contents into another clean small plastic cup.
  3. Use a new pipette to add 10 drops of Benedict’s Solution to each cup. Put a lid on each cup.
  4. Gently shake the contents of each cup.
  5. Place the cups in the hot water bath for 3-5 minutes. Remove the cups.
  • A rusty brown color in response to Benedict’s Solution indicates a large amount of simple sugars. An orange color indicates a moderate amount and a green or yellow color indicates a small amount of sugar. A blue color indicates no sugar present.
Complex Carbohydrate Test[edit]
  1. Use a pipette to place 10ml of water into a clean small plastic cup.
  2. Use the plastic spoon to put one spoonful of the stomach contents into another clean small plastic cup.
  3. Use a new pipette to add 5 drops of Iodine to each cup. Put a lid on each cup.
  4. Gently shake the contents of each cup.
  • Iodine causes complex carbohydrates to turn dark blue or black. Substances without starch are colored brown by the iodine, but do not react with it.
  • Throw away all of the used small cups, lids and pipettes.


The results[edit]

   It was confirmed that the victim's last meal was at China Chef! the murderer was caught and arrested.

Flowers for Freddy[edit]

Detective Riddles[edit]

About[edit]

This is a section focused on clever riddles and tricks. remember, the devil is in the details! This section may make you eventually think about things like a detective! Bold words hint towards things that you should really consider! Slanted words are words with emphasis or they are questions

No.1 There is no such thing as the perfect crime[edit]

A wealthy man lives alone in a small cottage. Because he was handicapped he had everything delivered to his cottage. The mailman was delivering a letter on Thursday when he noticed that the front door was ajar. Through the opening, he could see the man’s body lying in a pool of dried blood. On the porch were 2 bottles of milk, Monday’s newspaper, a catalog, flyers, and unopened mail. When Sherlock Holmes got to the cottage he told the police the killer was the mailman. ...But How did he know?

                                This trick involves careful watch over the mailman and the evidence. Find out how Sherlock found out it was the mailman

No.2 Bad Intentions[edit]

A woman invited her friend home for dinner. She made a meal of mashed potatoes and roast beef. For dessert, she cut an apple in halves and offered her friend one half along with some whipped cream on the side, and put the rest of the cream in a separate bowl. She then ate her piece of the same apple.

The friend died of poisoning, but the host survived despite eating from the same apple. How is that possible?


                                This trick involves thinking about how the guest died, and how the host survived. If it were the same apple, wouldn't it kill the host too?


No.3 The Severe Soft Drinks[edit]

Two men go to visit a female friend. She offers them soft drinks, which they accept. The drinks are identical in every way. One of the men dies after drinking his drink slowly, but the other man drank his drink fast and does not die. Why did one of the men die?

                                This trick involves carefully considering the bold words. They will lead you to the truth.

No.4 Whodunit?[edit]

A rich man that lived in a beautiful house on Baker Street, Mr. Ronald Green, has just been kidnapped and Sherlock Holmes has been appointed to the case. He finds a note at the crime scene written by Mr. Green. It read:

First of January, Fourth of October, Fifth of March, Third of June.” Sherlock knew that somehow, the killer’s name was hidden in the note. The suspects were as follows: Jack Green, the son and the heir of the property John Jacobson, an employee of Mr. Green June Green, Green’s wife

Sherlock deduced the killer’s name in an instant... Can you?

                                 This trick involves paying close attention to the note and the words in bold. Good Luck!

No.5 The Crimson Criminal[edit]

One snowy night, Sherlock Holmes was in his house sitting by the fire. All of a sudden a snowball came crashing through his window and broke it. Holmes got up and looked out the window just in time to see 3 neighborhood kids who were brothers run around a corner. Their names were John Crimson, Mark Crimson, and Paul Crimson. The next day Holmes got a note that read: “? Crimson. He broke your window.Which of the 3 Crimson brothers should Sherlock Holmes question about the incident?

                                 This trick involves paying very close attention to the note. Read it out loud if it helps.

No.6 The Case of the Five Men[edit]

There are 5 men. These are the clues you’ve got: 1. One of them shot and killed one of the other 5. 2. Dan ran in the New York City Marathon yesterday with one of the innocent men. 3. Mike considered being a farmer before he moved to the city. 4. Jeff is a top-notch computer consultant and wants to install Ben’s new computer next week. 5. The murderer had his leg amputated last month. 6. Ben met Jack for the first time 6 months ago. 7. Jack has been in seclusion since the crime. 8. Dan used to drink heavily. 9. Ben and Jeff built their last computers together. 10.The murderer is Jack’s brother. They grew up together in Seattle. Who was the murderer? Who was the victim?


                                 This trick involves carefully proving each person innocent using outside the box thinking. (YES, ITS POSSIBLE TO SOLVE)



Answers Below-- no peeking!!

The Answers to all of the Tricks[edit]

1. no such thing as the perfect crime:

2. bad intentions:

3. severe soft drinks

4. whodunit

5. the crimson criminal

6. the case of the five men

This section will be updated soon![edit]

-Katgamer, the Detective